1Professor in Sport Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2PhD student of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome constitutes a cluster of risk factors such as obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the possible effects of fasting and regular physical activity on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Online databases including Google Scholar, SID, PubMed, and MagIran were searched, using the following keywords: “training”, “exercise”, “physical activity”, “fasting”, “Ramadan”, “metabolic syndrome”, “fat percentage”, “blood pressure”, “blood sugar”, “cholesterol”, “triglyceride”, and “lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol”. All articles including research studies, review articles, descriptive and analytical studies, and ross-sectional research, published during 2006-2015, were reviewed. In case of any errors in the methodologyof articles, they were removed from our analysis. Results:Based on our literature review, inconsistent findings have been reported on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. However, the majority of conducted studies have suggested the positive effects of fasting on reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Although fasting in different seasons of the year has no significant impacts on mental health or physical fitness, it can reduce the risk of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Also, based on the conducted studies, if individuals adhere to a proper diet, avoid excessive eating, drink sufficient amounts of fluids, and keep a healthy level of physical activity, fasting can improve their physical health.
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