1Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2Departmet of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran
3Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Introduction: During Ramadan, adult Muslims abstain from drinking and eating from sunrise to sunset. This religious practice influences individuals’ lifestyle factors such as eating behavior, meal schedule, and sleep pattern. These changes may affect endocrine and neuroendocrine circadian patterns, and consequently, cardiovascular indices. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and homocysteine as the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and body composition in the Iranian population. Methods: Healthy volunteers who fasted at least during 20 days of Ramadan were included in the study. Body composition and biochemical markers were measured pre- and post-Ramadan fasting. For normally distributed parameters, paired samples t-test was performed for analyzing the differences between the results, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was run for non-normally distributed parameters. All the data was analyzed by SPSS, version 11.5. Results: Fifty-one healthy participants with the mean age of 36±10 years were enrolled in this study. Our analyses showed a reduction in body mass index (BMI) and fat mass pre- and post-Ramadan fasting. However, lean body mass and total body water remained unchanged by fasting. Variation in the serum Hs-CRP and homocysteine were not statistically significant. The results were the same across genders. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Ramadan fasting may lower fat mass in fasting volunteers with no adverse effects on inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.
Mazidi M, Rezaie P, Nematy M. The effects of Ramadan fasting on growth parameters: a narrative review. J Fasting Health. 2014; 2(1):41-4.
Salahuddin M, Javed MU. Effects of Ramadan fasting on some physiological and biochemical parameters in healthy and hypertensive subjects in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. J Fasting Health. 2014; 2(1):7-13.
Altun A, Ugur-Altun B. Does ramadan modify the circadian patterns? J Postgrad Med. 2006; 52(1):33.
Aksungar FB, Eren A, Ure S, Teskin O, Ates G. Effects of intermittent fasting on serum lipid levels, coagulation status and plasma homocysteine levels. Ann Nutr Metab. 2005; 49(2):77-82.
Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y. Response of circulating leptin to Ramadan daytime fasting: a circadian study. Br J Nutr. 2005; 93(4):515-8.
Roky R, Houti I, Moussamih S, Qotbi S, Aadil N. Physiological and chronobiological changes during Ramadan intermittent fasting. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004; 48(4):296-303.
Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y. Ramadan fasting alters endocrine and neuroendocrine circadian patterns. Meal–time as a synchronizer in humans? Life Sci. 2001; 68(14):1607-15.
Bosma-den Boer MM, van Wetten ML, Pruimboom L. Chronic inflammatory diseases are stimulated by current lifestyle: how diet, stress levels and medication prevent our body from recovering. Nutr Metab. 2012; 9(1):32.
Ridker PM. Evaluating novel cardiovascular risk factors: can we better predict heart attacks? Ann Intern Med. 1999; 130(11):933-7.
Lagrand WK, Visser CA, Hermens WT, Niessen HW, Verheugt FW, Wolbink GJ, et al. C-reactive protein as a cardiovascular risk factor more than an epiphenomenon? Circulation. 1999; 100(1):96-102.
Aksungar FB, Topkaya AE, Akyildiz M. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and biochemical parameters during prolonged intermittent fasting. Ann Nutr Metab. 2007; 51(1):88-95.
Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HM, Robinson K, Brattström LE, Ueland PM, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: the European Concerted Action Project. JAMA. 1997; 277(22):1775-81.
Nematy M, Alinezhad-Namaghi M, Rashed MM, Mozhdehifard M, Sajjadi SS, Akhlaghi S, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study. Nutr J. 2012; 11(1):69.
Hammouda O, Chtourou H, Aloui A, Chahed H, Kallel C, Miled A, et al. Concomitant effects of Ramadan fasting and time-of-day on apolipoprotein AI, B, Lp-a and homocysteine responses during aerobic exercise in Tunisian soccer players. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e79873.
Afrasiabi A, Hassanzadeh S, Sattarivand R, Mahboob S. Effects of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid profiles on 2 hyperlipidemic groups with or without diet pattern. Saudi Med J. 2003; 24(1):23-6.
Norouzy A, Salehi M, Philippou E, Arabi H, Shiva F, Mehrnoosh S, et al. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body composition and nutritional intake: a prospective study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013; 26(Suppl 1):97-104.
Vasan SK, Karol R, Mahendri N, Arulappan N, Jacob JJ, Thomas N. A prospective assessment of dietary patterns in Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes who undertake fasting during Ramadan. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 16(4):552-7.
Cervellin G, Comelli I, Comelli D, Meschi T, Lippi G, Borghi L. Mean temperature and humidity variations, along with patient age, predict the number of visits for renal colic in a large urban Emergency Department: results of a 9-year survey. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2012; 2(1):31-8.