1Jinnah Sindh Medical University
2Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
Objective: To find out the effect of physical activities and obesity among Ramadan fasting hypertensive patients of Karachi. Methods: 117 hypertensive patients were selected conveniently from the staff and faculty members of Dow University and other locations of Karachi. The inclusion criterion was the hypertensive patients with at least 20 days of fasting. The investigators visited three times (last ten days of Shaban, Ramadan and Shawwal) for collection of data. A questionnaire was completed before clinical examination. Blood pressures were measured 3 times in sitting position. 103 patients fasted at least 20 days. Results: The mean age of the 103 patients was 53.7±11.0 years. 11% participants could be considered as active using MET value of 600 and above. Mean sleeping hours decreased from 6.9 hours in Shaban to 6.3 hours in Ramadan. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased from Shaban to Ramadan and bounced back in Shawwal for both ‘active’ and ‘inactive’ patients. However, it was statistically significant for ‘inactive’ patients only. Only mean SBP decreased significantly from Shaban to Ramadan for normal and overweight patients. Combined effect of physical activity, obesity, sleeping pattern and number of fasting days with repeated measure ANOVA showed that only number of fasting days was statistically significant. Conclusions: The study concludes that fasting does not harm anyway to the hypertensive patients. Nevertheless, it significantly reduces the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Changes in physical activities, sleeping patterns, and weight reduction, except number days of fasting, do not affect on the fasting hypertensive patients.
Hackett C, Connor P, Stonawski M, Skirbekk V, Potancoková M, Abel G. The future of world religions: Population growth projections, 2010-2050. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center; 2015.
Al Hourani HM, Atoum MF, Akel S, Hijjawi N, Awawdeh S. Effects of Ramadan fasting on some haematological and biochemical parameters. Jordan J Biol Sci. 2009; 2(3):103-8.
Khan NB, Khan MH, Shaikh MZ, Khanani MR. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose levels and serum lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi Med J. 2010; 31(11):1269-70.
Khan N, Khan MH, Shaikh MZ, Khanani MR, Rasheed A. Effects of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on glucose levels and serum lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2012; 28(1):91-6.
Paul AK, Khan MA, Fariduddin M. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric measures and metabolic profiles among type 2 diabetic subjects. J Enam Med Coll. 2015; 5(2):93-8.
Akbari A, Golshan A, Moojdekanloo M, Hashemian M. Does fasting in Ramadan ameliorate lipid profile? A prospective observational study. Pak J Med Sci. 2014; 30(4):708-11.
Ajabnoor GM, Bahijri S, Borai A, Abdulkhaliq AA, Al-Aama JY, Chrousos GP. Health impact of fasting in Saudi Arabia during Ramadan: association with disturbed circadian rhythm and metabolic and sleeping patterns. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96500.
Cağlayan EK, Göçmen AY, Delibas N. Effects of long-term fasting on female hormone levels: Ramadan model. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 41(1):17-9.
Ganoou JV, Caszo BA, Khalil KM, Adullah SL, Knight VF, Bidin MZ. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in health adults. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2015, 14:55.
Kiyani MM, Memon AR, Amjad MI, Ameer MR, Sadiq M, Mahmood T. Study of human Biochemical parameters during and after Ramadan. J Relig Health. 2015; 56(1):55-62.
Celik A, Saricicek E, Saricicek V, Sahin E, Ozdemir G, Bozkurt S, et al. Effect of Ramadan fasting on serum concentration of apelin-13 and new obesity indices in healthy adult men. Med Sci Monit. 2014; 20:337-42.
Aktürk IF, Biyik I, Kosas C,Yalçın AA,Erturk M,Uzun F. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure control, lipid profile, brain natriuretic peptide, renal functions and electrolyte levels in hypertensive patients taking combination therapy. Evaluation. 2013; 21:25.
Alinezhad Namaghi M, Hasanzadeh Dalooe M, Khoshnasab AH, Nematy M, Khoshnasab A, Farrokhi J, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. J Fasting Health. 2014; 2(1):1-6.
Salahuddin M, Ashfak SA, Syed S, Badaam KM. Effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight, (BP) and biochemical parameters in middle aged hypertensive subjects: an observational trial. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014; 8(3):16-8.
Salahuddin M, Javed MU. Effects of Ramadan fasting on some physiological and biochemical parameters in healthy and hypertensive subjects in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. J Fasting Health. 2014; 2(1):7-13.
Ural E, Kozdag G, Kilic T, Ural D, Sahin T, Celebi O, Komsuoglu B. The effect of Ramadan fasting on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients using combination drug therapy. J Hum Hypertens. 2008; 22(3):208–10.
Perk G, Ghanem J, Aamar S, Ben-Ishay D, Bursztyn M. The effect of the fast of Ramadan on ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. J Hum Hypertens. 2001; 15(10):723-5.
Bensahi I, Houari C, Elfhal A, Habbal R. Does fasting in Ramadan affect right ventricular diastolic function in hypertensive patients? A Moroccan prospective observational study. Arch Cardiovasc Dis Suppl. 2015; 7(2):185.
Mahmudian S, Namazyan Z, Tavakoli N, Ghairiz P. Investigating the condition of medical counselling and some of the clinical aspects of fasting in holy month of Ramadan from the perspective of diabetic and hypertensive patients. J Fasting Health 2015; 3(2):58-64.
Soltani HM, Namayandeh SM, Latifeh J, Moghadam B. The Effect of fasting during Ramadan on blood pressure in patients with controlled and mild hypertension. J Hypertens. 2016; 5:227.
Alinezhad-Namaghi M, Salehi M. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a systematic review. J Fasting Health. 2016; 4(1):17-21.
Khan N, Qureshi A, Aftab R, Farooqi W, Khalid MM. Effect of gender and age-group on blood pressures among Ramadan fasting hypertensive patients. Ann Jinnah Sindh Med Univ. 2016; 2(1):3-7.
Al-Nozha MM, Al-Hazzaa HM, Arafah MR, Al-Khadra A, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Maatouq M, et al. Prevalence of physical activity and inactivity among Saudis aged 30-70 years: a population-based cross-sectional study. Saudi Med J. 2007; 28(4):559-68.
Samad F, Qazi F, Pervaiz MB, Kella DK, Mansoor M, Osmani B, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in normotensive males. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2015; 27(2):338-42.
Haghdoost AA, Poorranjbar M. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan. Singapore Med J. 2009; 50(9):897-901.
Dewanti L, Watanabe C, Sulistiawati, Ohtsuka R. Unexpected changes in blood pressure and hematological parameters among fasting and non-fasting workers during Ramadan in Indonesia. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006; 60:877-81.
Bursztyn M, Mekler J, Wachtel N, Ben-Ishay D. Siesta and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Comparability of the afternoon nap and night sleep. Am J Hypertens. 1994; 7(3):217-21.