Department of Physical Education, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
Introduction: Obesity is a complex health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular walking with alternate day fasting (ADF) on health-related factors of overweight and obese females. Methods: 30 healthy inactive, overweight and obese women were divided randomly into three equal groups. The groups were: control group (BMI: 30.72±4.40 kg/m2); the experimental group I: ADF along with regular walking with 50% to 65% maximal heart rate (BMI: 28.69 ±2.81 kg/m2) and the experimental group II: ADF (BMI: 30.56 ±3.66 kg/m2). Participants were under the diet for six weeks. The diet ADF means that, they had days of fasting and free day (with regular walking), alternately. Two days before and two days after the end of the study, the participants’ fasting blood sugar were measured after 12 hours. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and body composition were assessed in the same day. The collected data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA test. Results: Body mass index in both experimental groups had significant decrease (P<0.05). Decreasing body fat percent, from pre-test to post test was significant only in the experimental group I (P=0.006). The significant difference was found between groups in this reduction (P<0.05). In the experimental group II, lean body mass showed significant increase and blood glucose showed significant decrease (P<0.05). No significant changes were found in other variables (P>0.05). Conclusion: The regular walking program and ADF diet is an effective method for improving body mass index, body fat percentage and blood sugar.
Rahmani-Nia F, Hojjati Z. Prevention and treatment of obesity. Tehran: Hatmi; 2013 (Persian).
Varady KA, Bhutani S, Church EC, Klempel MC. Short-term modified alternate-day Fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults. Am Soc Nutr. 2009; 90(5):1138-43.
Ehrman JK, Gordon PM, Visich PS, Keteyian SJ. Clinical exercise physiology. Australia: Human Kinetics; 2013.
Attarzadeh Hoseini S, Rahimiyan Mashhad Z. Comparison the effect of aerobic training and diet on Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in overweight and obese women. Appl Res Sport Manag. 2012; 3(1):27-36 (Persian).
Souri R, Ravasi AA, Gaeini A, Aminian Razavi T, Kordi M. The Effect of training intensity on cardiovascular risk factors in non-athlete students. Res Sport Sci. 2007; 5:133–45 (Persian).
Bambaeichi E. Effect of regular walking on cardiovascular risk factors and risk of prevalence cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal females with history of menstrual cycle Irregularity during reproductive years. Sport Physiol. 2013; 5(17):131–49 (Persian).
de Azevedo FR, Ikeoka D, Caramelli B. Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men. Rev Assoc Méd Bras. 2013; 59(2):167-73.
Sawashita J, Onitsuka S, Gen-no H, Ishikawa S, Iino F, Tateishi N, et al. Effects of mild calorie restriction and high-intensity interval walking n middle-aged and older overweight Japanese. Exp Gerontol. 2009; 44(10):666-75.
Pasdar Y, Moridi S, Najafi F, Niazi P, Heidary M. The effect of nutritional intervention and physical activities on weight reduction. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2012; 15(6):427-35 (Persian).
Ross KM, Milsom VA, Rickel KA, DeBraganza N, Gibbons LM, Murawski ME, et al. The contribution of weight loss and increased physical fitness to improvements in health-related quality of life. Eat Behav 2009; 10(2):48-88.
Eshghinia S, Mohammadzadeh F. The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2013; 12(1):4.
Klempel MC, Kroger CM, Norkeviciute E, Goslawski M, Philips SA, Varady KA. Benefit of a low-fat over high-fat diet on vascular health during alternate day fasting. Nutr Diabetes. 2013; 3:e71.
Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Kroger CM. Comparison of effects of diet versus exercise weight loss regimens on LDL and HDL particle size in obese adults. Lipids Health Dis. 2011; 10:119.
Hojati Z. Nutrition. 1st ed. Rasht: Dehsara; 2012 (Persian).
Francis D, Hali E. Book facts about the readiness of sports and fitness. Rasht: University of Guilan; 2000 (Persian).
Zarneshan A. Synergic effect of aerobic exercise training (moderate intensity) and soya intake on blood pressure & rest heart rate in obese postmenopausal women. Bio J Hoemozgan Univ Med Sci. 2014; 18(1):55–63 (Persian).
Moradi H, Kolahdozi S, Ahmadi Kani Golzar F, Arabzade Ghahyazi Hasjodi F, Rezvan K. The Effects of eight weeks resistance training and green tea supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight men. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2014; 16(4):77–87 (Persian).
McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.
Maughan RJ, Gleeson M, Greenhaff PL. Biochemistry of exercise & training. Trans: Gaeini A, Hamedinia M, Kaoshkijahromy M, Fathi M. Tehran: Daneshgahi Publication; 2006 (Persian).
Gayda M, Choquet D, Ahmadi S. Effects of exercise training modality on skeletal muscle fatigue in men with coronary heart disease. J Electrom Kinesol. 2009; 19(2):32-9.
Ramzani Nejad R. Motor Development. Rasht: University of Guilan; 1999 (Persian).
Karimi M, Eshrati B. The effects of health promotion model-based training on promoting students' physical activity. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2012; 16(3):192-200.
Esfarjani F, Rashidi F, Marandi SM. The effect of aerobic exercise on blood glucose, Lipid Profile and Apo. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2013; 13(2):132–41.
Arazi H, Jorbonian A, Asghari E. Comparison of concurrent (resistance-aerobic) and aerobic training on VO2max lipid profile, blood glucose and blood pressure in middle-aged men at risk for cardiovascular disease. Shahid Sadughi Univ Med Sci Health Serv. 2012; 20(5):627–38 (Persian).
Alizadeh Z, Kordi R, Hossein-Zadeh Attar MJ, Mansournia MA. The effects of continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in women with a body mass index more than 25 kg/m2: a randomized controlled trial. Tehran Univ Med J. 2011; 69(4):253–9 (Persian).
Naghi MR, Almadadi M. Effect of regular physical activity as a basic component of lifestyle modification on reducing major cardiovascular risk factors. J Know Health. 2001; 6(1):27-35.