Quercetin Production and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity Enhancement by Putrescine and Benzyl Amino Purine in Vitro Culture of Achillea Millefolium Linn

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Biotechnology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran.

2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture,Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran.

3 Department of Biology, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran.


Introduction: Quercetin is observed in abundance in Achillea millefolium Linn and it has been employed for the treatment of diseases, infections, as well as health issues. This study examines the individual and combined impact of putrescine and benzyl amino purine (BAP) with the stimulation of quercetin production and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in Achillea millefolium Linn cultures. Methods: Seedlings with four leaves were cut and transferred to MS basal medium (Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium). At the next stage, different concentrations of putrescine were applied. Quercetin was identified through using HPLC, and the assessment of PAL activity was completed by accounting for the level of cinnamic acid produced at 290 nm. Different experimental data were analyzed after collection using SAS software and Duncan’s test was employed to compare the means. Results: With the addition of putrescine, the quercetin production, BAP, and PAL activities were remarkably affected. Moreover, quercetin production and PAL activity were enhanced through stimulation applied using putrescine with varying concentrations. When various concentrations of putrescine were applied, the fact was illustrated that 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L experienced the highest amount of quercetin and PAL activity, respectively. Conclusion: This particular finding suggests that combining elicitors and plant growth regulators is a beneficial strategy adopted in enhancing PAL activity and the production of quercetin for in vitro cultures of A. millefolium.


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  • Receive Date: 28 June 2020
  • Revise Date: 26 October 2020
  • Accept Date: 27 October 2020
  • First Publish Date: 27 October 2020