Document Type : Research Paper
Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan
3rd year Postgraduate Resident of Surgery, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan.
Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Ramadan fasting and dietary patterns on the blood pressure, fasting glucose level, and body mass index (BMI) of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), DM and HTN, and healthy subjects. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaban, Ramadan, and Shawwal months in 2020 on 155 subjects who were divided into groups of HTN (G1; n=42), DM (G2; n=32), DM and HTN (G3; n=41), and healthy (G4; n=40). The subjects were interviewed three times during the study period to collect data on demographics, dietary habits, and physical activity. In addition, physical parameters (height and weight) and clinical parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar) were measured in each visit. Data were collected three times in the last ten days of each month. Data analysis was performed using the repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Mean weight and BMI reduced significantly from Shaban (V1) to Ramadan (V2). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also reduced significantly from V1 to V2. Moreover, the mean sleeping hours significantly decreased from V1 to V2. Considering Tarawih prayer as physical activity, a significant increase was observed in the mean metabolic energy turnover value from V1 to V2. Mean calorie, carbohydrate, and sodium intake also increased significantly from V1 to V2, while they reversed significantly to almost the same values in V3. Protein and cholesterol consumption decreased significantly from V1 to V2, while the value reversed significantly in V3. Conclusion: According to the results, Ramadan fasting could effectively control the blood pressure and glucose levels of the patients. Furthermore, physical activity increased significantly due to Tarawih prayers, and carbohydrate, sodium, and calorie intake increased as well. On the other hand, a reduction was denoted in protein and fat consumption. Glucose levels significantly decreased in the diabetic patients, and blood pressure significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients.