Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Introduction: Tyramine and Histamine, are two major biogenic amines that could be formed in different types of cheese. Methods: Bunium persicum essential oil (BPEO) in different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v)) was added to milk. The amount of biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine) was specified by reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) after extraction from the cheese. Different microbiological analyses (mesophilic lactobacilli, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactococci, enterococci, and yeasts) were performed during the ripening cheese. Results: The amounts of biogenic amines were lower in cheese samples containing 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% BPEO in comparison with control samples. Tyramine quantity increased from 8.90 mg/kg on started day up to 172.40 mg/kg on last day of ageing in the control group also the mean concentration of histamine was 6.31 mg/kg then reached to 41.16 mg/kg in the control samples at the end of study period. The most microbiological decrease was detected in yeasts, and the minimum microbiological decrease was observed in Enterobacteriaceae population. All the cheese samples were acceptable to the panelists. The increase of BPEO concentrations in cheese samples caused a further reduction in biogenic amines quantity and microbial population. Cheddar cheese sample with 0.2% BPEO demonstrated the highest acceptability and quality among all the cheese samples. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed Bunium persicum EO could be utilized as a reducing agent of biogenic amines, and a natural antimicrobial and flavoring agent in Cheddar cheese, for improving consumers' health.