Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Sport Physiology, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
Department of Sport Physiology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.
Department of Sport Sciences and Sports Medicine Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
Introduction: A proper diet and physical activity benefit Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of endurance training (ET) with saffron (Sa) consumption on cytochrome C and calmodulin kinase 2 in the heart tissue of AD rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 rats (AD induced by intraperitoneal 8mg/kg trimethyl tin) were divided into five groups of eight animals comprising: (1) AD, (2) Endurance training (ET), (3) saffron (Sa), (4) ET+Sa, and (5) sham (Saffron solvent) groups. The ET and ET+Sa groups ran on a treadmill at 15 to 20m/min (three sessions a week for eight weeks), each lasting 15 to 30 minutes. In addition, the Sa and ET+Sa groups were given 25mg/kg saffron extract per day. The Shapiro-Wilk test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used to analyze the data (P≥0.05). Results: ET, Sa, and ET+Sa significantly decreased cytochrome C and calmodulin kinase 2 (P≥0.05). In addition, ET+Sa significantly reduced calmodulin kinase two more than training (P=0.04). Conclusion: Based on the results, Training and saffron consumption appear to have the same impacts on reducing cytochrome C and calmodulin kinase 2. However, simultaneous training and saffron consumption can improve the gene expression levels of calmodulin kinase 2.